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Cataract

What is Cataract?

patient1Normally, the lens of the eye is clear and allows light rays to pass through easily. When a cataract develops, the lens becomes cloudy and opaque. The light rays no longer pass through the lens easily, so the patient cannot see clearly.

A change in the chemical composition of the lens causes most cataracts. The following are the various types of cataracts.
There are many types of cataracts.

Age related cataract

This is the most common type of cataract, comprising 80 percent of the total cataracts. It occurs in patients above the age of 50.

Congenital Cataract

Cataracts in children are rare. They can be caused by infection of the mother during pregnancy, or they may be hereditary.

Traumatic Cataract

Eye injuries may cause cataracts in patients of any age.

Secondary Cataract

Eye diseases, like glaucoma, inflammations and infections inside the eye and eye tumors may cause cataracts.

Metabolic Cataract

Cataract is also caused by metabolic disorders like diabetes. Diabetic patients are more prone to develop cataract than their age-related compatriots.

Drug-induced Cataract

Prolonged treatment with steroid drugs, either for local (e.g., allergic conjunctivitis) or systemic diseases (e.g., asthma) may lead to cataract formation.

Symptoms of Cataract patient2

• Blurring or dimness of vision
• Feeling of a film over the eyes
• Sensitivity to light and glare
• Change in colour of pupil
• Double vision and dulling of colour sense

Treatment

Cataract cannot be cured by medicines or spectacles. Removal of the clouded lens through surgery is the only treatment.

Types of Cataract Removal

Routine method (old method) -

After administering a local anesthesia, a 10 mm incision is made in the eye. The cataract lens is removed and it may be replaced by an Aphakic glass. The incision is then closed with sutures. After the surgery, glasses with high power called aphakic spectacles are prescribed to the operated person. The disadvantages of this type of surgery is that the aphakic glasses are heavy, images seen are larger than they normally appear to be, and the field of vision is restricted.

New method (IOL) - Implanting of Intraocular lens (IOL) with sutures:

After administering a local anaesthesia, a 10 mm incision is made in the eye. The clouded lens is removed and replaced by an IOL and the incision is then closed with sutures. The entire procedure takes only 15 minutes.

What is IOL?

patient3Intra Ocular lens (IOL) is a tiny transparent convex lens. It is made of polymethyl methacrylate , (a harmless plastic substance). Unlike contact lens, an IOL stays permanently in the eye and does not cause irritation.

Advantages of IOL

• Since the lens is placed inside the eye, most often the patient need not wear glasses for clear vision. But sometimes patient has to wear glasses for clarity.
• Images are clear and of the same dimension without distortion
• Full vision returns very clearly
• Normal field of vision

Phaco or suture-less surgery with implantation of IOL

After giving a local anaesthesia, a 5mm incision is made in the eye. The cataract lens is broken into small pieces by a machine with ultrasonic waves and removed with a needle.
A specially prepared IOL is inserted into the eye through the small incision and the wound heals without sutures.

Advantages of Phaco

• Small Incision
• No sutures and no need of suture removal.
• No irritation, no watering
• Early return to work
• No need to continue drops for a long time
• Stable refraction after one monthtest